Football injuries are broadly classified as Overuse and Traumatic injuries. Stress on the muscles, joints and soft tissues over time cause Overuse injuries while sudden impacts cause Traumatic injuries.
Common injuries can also be classified as:
- Lower Extremity Injuries
- Hamstring Strain
Overstretching movements during sprinting cause tear in hamstring muscles causing
- Pain during exercise with a popping feeling
- Sudden pain in the back of the thigh and lower buttock
- Knee Injuries
- Meniscus Tear
Meniscus tears happen from anterior to posterior, radially or like a bucket handle with locking or popping of knee with severe pain and swelling.
- Iliotibial Band Syndrome
Poor biomechanics causes this with a sharp, burning pain on the knee’s outer part with swelling.
- Patellar Tendinitis
Degeneration of Patellar tendon brings pain and tenderness around kneecap.
- Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome
Patella rubbing against the femur causes kneecap pain and irritation.
- Knee Ligament Injuries
Sudden change in direction, wrong landing from a jump causes this. The common knee ligament injuries are:
- ACL Tear
- Overstretching of the ACL develops a tear causing a popping sound, immobility and pain & swelling of the knee,
- PCL tear
Twisting or direct blow to front of knee causes a tear with mild pain and loss of balance.
- Groin Pull or Strain
Overstretching of hamstrings leads to adductor strain causing acute groin pain.
Stresses in the pelvic region causes hernia with severe pain, even getting out of bed becomes difficult.
- Pulled or Strained Calf Muscle
Part of lower leg’s muscles gets pulled from the Achilles tendon causing pain.
- Ankle and Heel Injuries
- Achilles Tendinitis
- Overuse and degeneration of Achilles tendon cause pain at ankle’s back.
- Plantar Fasciitis
- Pain in the heel’s bottom especially morning first steps.
- Shin Splints
- Cumulative stress causes pain in front of lower leg.
- Sprained Ankle
Stretching and tearing of ankle’s ligaments sprains the ankle.
- Upper Extremity Injuries
- Shoulder Injuries
Two common shoulder injuries are the Rotator Cuff Syndrome (rotator cuff tendon tears) and Shoulder Impingement (compression of rotator cuff tendons) causing severe pain in shoulders.
- Head, Neck and Face Injuries
Severe blow to the head causes this.
Other types of injuries are:
- Muscle Cramps
Sudden and intense pain is caused when a contracting muscle does not relax due to dehydration.
Presence of fluid-filled sacs below skin’s surface of hands and feet.
- Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness
Muscle pain, stiffness and soreness occur after 24-48 hours of intense workout.
- Stress Fractures
Repetitive and overuse impacts on a hard surface causes this in legs.
- Poor Running Mechanics that includes overstriding and poor pelvic control, putting hamstrings at risk.
- Proper warm-ups and cool-downs are not performed before and after play.
- Improper playing surfaces, like wet slippery ones cause hamstring injuries.
Inappropriate training loads
- Lumbar spine abnormalities or poor pelvic control can cause nerve dysfunction and lead to muscle weakness ending in injury.
- Some injuries like ACL tears occur when pivoting or landing from a jump and the knees give way.
- Proper warm-ups and cool-down routines
- Consistent core-strengthening and stretching
- Hydrate sufficiently to prevent dehydration and cramps.
- Wear properly fitted sports attire like shoes, clothes and cleats.
- Wear protective gear like mouth guards, knee and elbow pads, eye protection, shin guards.
- Use good technique
- Maintain proper fitness
- Avoid overuse injuries
- Keep track of the weather and surface.
- Always speak with a sports medical professional.
- Follow the ACL and Hamstring Injury Prevention program
Dr Banarji B.H, Best Orthopaedic Surgeon provides best Treatment for Sports Injuries including Football Injury.